By Decree of the President
Of the Russian Federation
12 May 2009 No. 537
National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation to 2020
- General Provisions
- Russia has overcome the consequences of the systemic political and socio-economic crisis of the end of the 20th century — having stopped the decline in the quality of life of Russian citizens; withstood the pressures of nationalism, separatism and international terrorism; prevented the discreditation of the constitutional form of government; preserved its sovereignty and territorial integrity; and restored the country’s potential to enhance its competitiveness and defend its national interests as a key player within evolving multipolar international relations.
Russia is pursuing a state policy of national defense, state and social security, and stable development, which responds adequately to internal and external conditions. The preconditions for reinforcing the system of national security have been created, and the relevant legal space has been consolidated. Priority issues in the economic sphere have been resolved, and the attractiveness of the economy for investment has grown. Authentically Russian ideals and spirituality are being born, alongside a dignified attitude to historical memory. Social harmony is being formed on the basis of shared values — the freedom and independence of the Russian state, humanism, the peaceful coexistence and cultural unity of Russia’s multinational population, respect for family traditions, and patriotism.
Overall, the preconditions have been formed for the reliable pre-emption of internal and external threats to national security, as well as for the dynamic development and transformation of Russia into a world leader with regards to the level of technological progress, quality of life, and influence over global affairs.
In the context of the globalisation of processes of world development, as well as of international political and economic relations, which creates new threats and risks to the development of the individual, society, and the state, Russia is transitioning to a new state national security policy, as a guarantee of successful national development.
- The main directions of the national security policy of the Russian Federation are the [so-called] strategic national priorities, in the form of important social, political and economic transformations intended to create secure conditions for the realisation of Russian citizens’ constitutional rights and freedoms, the stable development of the country, and the preservation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the state.
- The national security strategy of the Russian Federation until 2020 is an officially acknowledged system of strategic priorities, goals and measures with regards to domestic and foreign policy, which determine the degree of national security and the level of stable, long-term development of the state.
Conceptual assumptions in the area of ensuring national security are based on the fundamental interconnectedness and interdependence of the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation to 2020 and the Concept for Long-Term Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Federation to 2020.
- The given Strategy forms the basis of the development of a system ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation, and presents a plan of action and measures intended to guarantee national security. It lays the foundations for constructive interaction among state bodies, organisations and social groups, in order to defend Russia’s national interests and safeguard the security of the individual, society and the state.
- The main purpose of the given Strategy is to formulate and support, with the aid of national security forces, the internal and external conditions conducive to the implementation of strategic national priorities.
- The given Strategy employs the following concepts:
“national security” – the protection of the individual, society and the state from domestic and foreign threats, which in turn ensures constitutional rights and freedoms, an appropriate quality of life for citizens, sovereignty, territorial integrity and stable development of the Russian federation, the defense and security of the state;
“national interests of the Russian Federation” — the aggregate of the internal and external needs of the state in ensuring the protection and stable development of the individual, society and the state;
“threat to national security” — the direct or indirect possibility of damage to constitutional rights and freedoms, quality of life, sovereignty/territorial integrity, stable development of the RF, defense and security of the state;
“strategic national priorities” — the most important directions in terms of ensuring national security, in accordance with which are realised the constitutional rights and freedoms of RF citizens, stable socio-economic development, and the protection of the country’s sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity;
“system of national security” — the forces and means which ensure national security
“forces of national security” — the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other troops, military formations and bodies which under federal legislation are designated as engaging in military and/or law enforcement service, and likewise federal organs of state power which participate in the provision of national security on the basis of legislation of the Russian Federation;
“means of ensuring national security” — technologies, and likewise technical, programming, linguistic, legal, and organisational resources, including telecommunications channels, which are used within the system of provision of national security in order to collect, formulate, process, transmit or receive information on the status of national security and measures for its reinforcement.
- The forces and means which ensure national security concentrate their efforts and resources on the provision of national security in the political, economic and social spheres, in the areas of science and education, in the intercultural, spiritual, informational, military, military-industrial and ecological spheres, and likewise in the area of social security.
- Russia and the modern world: Current conditions and trends of development
- World development is following the path of globalisation in all spheres of international life, which in turn is characterised by a high degree of dynamism and interdependence of events.
Nation-states have experienced the intensification of conflicts connected to unequal development, as a result of globalising processes, and of the deepening rift between rich and poor countries. Values and models of development have become the subject of global competition.
The vulnerability of all members of the international community to new threats and challenges has grown.
As a result of the rise of new centres of economic growth and political influence, a qualitatively new geopolitical situation is unfolding. There is an increasing tendency to seek resolutions to existing problems and regulate crisis situations on a regional basis, without the participation of non-regional powers.
The inadequacy of the current global and regional architecture, oriented (particularly in the Euro-Atlantic region) towards NATO, and likewise the imperfect nature of legal instruments and mechanisms, create an ever-increasing threat to international security.
- The transition in the international system from opposing blocs to principles of multivector diplomacy, together with Russia’s resource potential and pragmatic policy for its use, have broadened the possibilities for the Russian Federation to reinforce its influence on the world stage.
The Russian Federation has sufficient potential to count on the creation, in the medium-term, of conditions conducive to its entrenchment among the leaders of the world economy, on the basis of effective participation in global division of labour, improved global competitiveness of the national economy, of defense potential, and of the level of state and social security.
- A negative influence on the assurance of Russia’s national interests will be exerted by the likely recurrence of one-sided use of force in international relations, disagreements between the main participants in world politics, the threat of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their use by terrorists, and likewise the improvement of forms of illicit activity in the cybernetic and biological domains, in the sphere of high technology. The global information struggle will intensify, threats will increase to the stability of industrialised and developing countries, their socio-economic development and democratic institutions. Nationalist sentiments, xenophobia, separatism and violent extremism will grow, including under the banner of religious radicalism. The global demographic situation and environmental problems will become more acute, and threats associated with uncontrolled and illegal migration, drug and human trafficking, and other forms of transnational organised crime, will also increase. Epidemics caused by new, previously unknown viruses are likely to spread. The deficit of fresh water will become more obvious.
- In the long term, the attention of international politics will be focused on ownership of energy resources, including in the Near East, the Barents Sea shelf and other parts of the Arctic, in the Caspian basin, and in Central Asia.
In the medium term, the situation in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as conflicts in the Near and Middle East, in a number of South Asian and African countries, and on the Korean peninsula, will continue to exert a negative influence on the international situation.
- The critical condition of physical storage of dangerous materials and objects, especially in countries with unstable political situations, together with the proliferation of regular armaments beyond the control of the state, can lead to the intensification of existing, as well as the creation of new regional and interstate conflicts.
Under conditions of competition for resources, it is not excluded that arising problems may be resolved using military force, and that the current balance of power on the borders of Russia and its allies may be disturbed.
There is an increasing risk that the number of countries possessing nuclear weapons will rise.
The possibility of maintaining global and regional stability will substantially decrease with the placement in Europe of elements of the global missile defense system of the United States of America.
The consequences of global financial-economic crises may become comparable, in terms of overall losses, to the consequences of large-scale application of military force.
- In the long term, the Russian Federation will seek to construct international relations based on the principles of international law, and on the institution of reliable and equal security of nation-states.
For the defense of its national interests, Russia, while remaining within the boundaries of international law, will implement a rational and pragmatic foreign policy, one which excludes expensive confrontation, including a new arms race.
Russia perceives the United Nations and the Security Council of the United Nations as a central element of a stable system of international relations, at the basis of which lie respect, equal rights and mutually beneficial cooperation among nations, resting on civilised political instruments for the resolution of global and regional crisis situations.
Russia will increase its interaction with multilateral fora such as the G8, G20, RIC (Russia/India/China), BRIC (Brazil/Russia/India/China), and will likewise capitalise on the potential of other informal international institutions.
The development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation with member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States is a priority direction of Russian foreign policy. Russia will seek to develop the potential for regional and subregional integration and coordination among member-states of the CIS, first of all within the framework of the Commonwealth, and also the CSTO and EvrAzEs, which exert a stabilising influence on the overall situation in the regions bordering on the CIS.
Moreover, the CSTO is regarded as the main interstate instrument for responding to regional threats and challenges of a military-political or military-strategic nature, including the fight with illegal trafficking in narcotic and psychotropic sybstances.
- Russia will promote the strengthening of EvrAzEs as the nucleus of economic integration, and instrument of assistance to the realisation of major hydropower, infrastructural, industrial and other joint projects having a primarily regional significance.
- Of particular significance for Russia will be the reinforcement of the political potential of the SCO, and the stimulation within its framework of practical steps towards the enhancement of mutual trust and partnership in the Central Asian region.
- The Russian Federation is in favor strengthening the mechanisms of cooperation with the European Union by all possible means, including the continued formation of common spaces in the economic, educational, scientific and cultural spheres, and in terms of internal and external security. The long-term national interests of Russia are served by the creation of an open system of Euro-Atlantic collective security, on a clear legal and treaty basis.
- A determining aspect of relations with NATO remains the fact that plans to extend the alliance’s military infrastructure to Russia’s borders, and attempts to endow NATO with global functions that go counter to norms of international law, are unacceptable to Russia.
Russia is prepared to develop relations with NATO on the basis of equality and in the interests of strengthening the general security of the Euro-Atlantic region. The content and depth of these relations will be determined by the preparedness of the alliance to recognise Russia’s legal interests when engaging in military-political planning, and to respect norms of international law; and likewise NATO’s readiness to consider the further transformation of these relations and the search for new tasks and functions with a humanist [humane?] orientation.
- Russia will strive to build an equitable and valuable strategic partnership with the United States of America, on the basis of shared interests and taking into account the key influence of Russian-American relations on the international situation as a whole. In terms of priorities, these will continue to be the achievement of new agreements in the sphere of disarmament and arms control, the reinforcement of confidence building measures, and likewise the resolution of issues surrounding non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the development of antiterrorist cooperation, and the regulation of regional conflicts.
- In the sphere of international security, Russia will maintain its adherence to the use of political, legal, economic, military and other instruments to defend state sovereignty and national interests.
The execution of a predictable and open foreign policy is inextricably tied to the realisation of Russia’s stable development. The successful integration of Russia into the global economic space and the international division of labour is inhibited by the slow pace of transition of the national economy towards an innovation-based development trajectory.
- For the prevention of threats to national security, it is essential to guarantee social stability, ethnic and denominational harmony, increase the mobilisation potential and growth of the national economy, as well as improve the quality of work performed by state bodies and formulate effective mechanisms for their interaction with civil society, in order to realise the right of every Russian citizen to life, security, work, housing, health and a healthy way of life, accessible education and cultural development.
III. National interests of the Russian Federation and Strategic National Priorities
- The national interests of the Russian Federation in the long term consist of the following:
developing democracy and civil society, and the enhancement of the competitiveness of the national economy;
ensuring the solidity of the constitutional system, territorial integrity, and sovereignty of the Russian Federation;
transforming the Russian Federation into a world power, whose activity is directed at supporting the strategic stability and mutually beneficial partner relationships within the multipolar world.
- The internal and external sovereign needs of the state with regards to ensuring national security are realised via the strategic national priorities.
- The main national security priorities of the Russian Federation are national defense, state and social security.
- In order to ensure national security, the Russian Federation, as well as achieving the basic priorities of national security, concentrates its efforts and resources on the following priorities of stable development:
increasing the quality of life of Russian citizens by guaranteeing individual security, high standards of living, and economic growth which is achieved first and foremost by developing a national system of innovation and by investing in human capital;
science, technology, education, health care and culture, which are developed by reinforcing the role of the state and improving public-private partnership;
ecology of living systems and rational resource use, supported by balanced consumption, development of progressive technologies, and expedient use of the country’s resources;
strategic stability and equitable strategic partnership, on the basis of Russia’s active participation in the development of the multipolar model of the international system.
- Ensuring national security
- The main components of the provision of national security consist of the maintenance of legal and institutional mechanisms, and likewise of the resources of the state and society, at a level corresponding to the national interests of the Russian Federation.
The state of national security of the Russian Federation is directly dependent on the economic potential of the country and the effectiveness of the system of provision of national security.
- National defense
- The strategic goals related to improving national defense consist of preventing global and regional wars and conflicts, and likewise of realising strategic deterrence in the interests of ensuring the country’s military security.
Strategic deterrence presupposes the development and systemic realisation of a range of interconnected political, diplomatic, military, economic, informational and other measures, intended to forestall or reduce the threat of destructive action on the part of a state aggressor (coalition of states).
Strategic deterrence is realised with the use of the state’s economic resources, including support for the forces providing national security, by means of the development of a system of military-patriotic education of Russian citizens, and likewise of military infrastructure and administration systems for the state military organisation.
- The Russian Federation provides national defense on the basis of principles of reasonable sufficiency and effectiveness, including by means of non-military response, mechanisms of public diplomacy and peacekeeping, and international military cooperation.
- Military security is ensured by developing and improving the military organisation and defensive potential of the state, and likewise the allocation of sufficient financial, material and other resources for this purpose.
The strategic objectives of national defense are realised by developing the system of national security, implementing a long-term military-technological policy and developing military infrastructure, and likewise by improving the system of administration of the state military organisation and by realising a range of measures increasing the prestige of military service.
- The long-term state policy of the Russian Federation in the area of national defense and military construction, including within the framework of the Union State [with Belarus], is oriented towards the improvement of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other troops, military formations and bodies, called upon to ensure the security, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, under any given conditions of the military-political environment.
- Threats to military security include the policies of a number of leading foreign countries, directed at achieving predominant superiority in the military sphere, primarily in terms of strategic nuclear forces, but also by developing high-precision, informational and other high-technology means of conducting armed warfare, strategic non-nuclear arms, by unilaterally creating a global missile defense system and militarising space, which could lead to a new arms race, and likewise policies directed at the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological technologies, and the production of weapons of mass destruction, their delivery systems or components.
Negative influences on the military security of the Russian Federation and its allies are aggravated by the departure from international agreements pertaining to arms limitation and reduction, and likewise by actions intended to disrupt the stability of systems of government and military administration, rocket attack warning systems, control of outer space, the functioning of strategic nuclear forces, nuclear weapons storage facilities, nuclear energy, nuclear and chemical industry, and other potentially dangerous sites.
- The Russian Federation realises the long-term state policy of national defense by developing a system of foundational conceptual documents, and likewise of documents concerned with planning and developing norms of legal regulation of state bodies, of institutions, enterprises and organisations of the real economy, and of civil society institutions, in times of peace and war; and moreover with the improvement of the forces and means of civil defense, as well as the country’s communication networks and transport infrastructure in the interests of national defense.
- The main challenge of strengthening national defense in the medium term is the transition towards a qualitatively new profile for the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, while maintaining the potential of the strategic nuclear forces, by improving the organisational staff structure and system of territorially-based troops and forces, increasing the number of divisions at constant readiness, and likewise improving operations and combat training, as well as improving the organisation of interaction among different troops and forces.
To this end, the recruitment system of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other troops, military formations and bodies is being clarified, including personnel training and development of relevant infrastructure; optimal standby mechanisms are being developed; the prestige of military service and officers’ status is being enhanced; and likewise government programmes and contracts are being executed for the development, creation and modernisation of arms, military and specialist technology, including means of communication, reconnaissance, electronic warfare and control [command?].
- In the medium term, the transition towards a single system of contracts by the federal organs of executive power for armaments, military and specialist technology to supply the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other troops, military formations and bodies, should be completed, as should the transition to a unified system of logistics and technical support. Normative legal regulation of the maintenance of supplies of material resources in the state- and mobilisation reserve should be achieved, and likewise collaboration with other states in the area of military security.
- The restructuring, optimisation and development of the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation in the medium term corresponds to the resolution of challenges regarding the comprehensive and timely provision of modern armaments and specialised technology to the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other troops, military formations and bodies.
- State and public security
- Strategic national security objectives in the sphere of state and public security are the protection of Russia’s constitutional system, of the basic rights and freedoms of the individual and the citizen, of the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation, and likewise the preservation of civil peace, political and social stability.
- For the provision of national security in the domain of long-term state and public security, the Russian Federation starts from the necessity of constant improvements to law enforcement measures for the exposure, prevention, disruption and discovery of acts of terrorism, extremism, and other criminal infringements on the rights and freedoms of the individual and the citizen, on property, social order and public security, and on the constitutional system of the Russian Federation.
- The main threats to national security in the sphere of state and public security are as follows:
investigative or other activity by the special services and organisations of foreign countries, and likewise by individual persons, directed at causing harm to the security of the Russian Federation;
the activity of terrorist organisations, groups and individuals, directed at violent changes to the constitutional system of the Russian Federation, the disruption of normal functioning of state bodies (including violent action against governmental, political and social actors), the destruction of military or industrial sites, enterprises and institutions providing for vital social activities, and intimidation of the population, including by means of nuclear and chemical weapons or dangerous radioactive, chemical and biological substances;
the extremist activity of nationalist, religious, ethnic or other organisations and structures, directed at destroying the unity and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation, destabilisation of the interal political and social situation in the country;
the activity of transnational criminal organisations and groupings, connected to illegal trafficking of narcotic and psychotropic substances, weapons, ammunition and explosive substances;
the persistent growth of criminal acts, directed against the individual, property, state power, public and economic security, and likewise acts connected to corruption.
- The main long-term directions of state policy in the sphere of state and public security must be the reinforcement of the role of the state as guarantor of the security of the individual, first of all children and adolescents; the improvement of normative legal regulation of the fight against and prevention of criminality, corruption, terrorism and extremism; more effective defense of the rights and lawful interests of Russian citizens abroad; and the expansion of global collaboration in law enforcement.
- Long-term state and public security will likewise be supported by the increased effectiveness of law-enforcement organs and special services, by the creation of a single state system for the prevention of criminality (first of all concerning minors) and of other unlawful acts, a system which will encompass monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of law enforcement practises, and developing and applying special measures directed at reducing the level of corruption and criminalisation of social relations.
- In order to ensure state and public security:
the structures and activity of federal organs of executive power are being improved, a National Anticorruption Plan is being implemented, a system of discovery and response to the global threats and crises of modernity is being developed, including international and national terrorism, political and religious extremsim, nationalism and ethnic separatism;
mechanisms for the forecasting and neutralisation of social and interethnic conflicts are being created;
a long-term concept for the comprehensive development and improvement of law-enforcement organs and special services is being formulated, social guarantees for their employees are being strengthened, scientific-technical support for law enforcement activity is being improved, promising specialist means and technologies are being adopted, a system of professional cadre training is being developed in the area of state and public security;
a regime of secure functioning of the enterprises, organisations and institutions belonging to the country’s military-industrial, nuclear, chemical and nuclear energy complexes, and likewise of essential support systems for the life of the population;
the social responsibility of bodies providing state and public security is being increased.
- One of the conditions of national security is the reliable defense and protection of the state borders of the Russian Federation.
The main threats to the border-related interests and security of the Russian Federation are the presence and possible escalation of armed conflicts near its state borders, and the
Security threats to borders include the activity of international terrorist and extremist organisations which base their emissaries and terrorist means in Russia and organise sabotage on Russian territory, and likewise the increased activity of transnational criminal groupings engaged in the illegal transfer across the Russian border of narcotic and psychotropic substances, goods and cargo, water and biological resources, other material and cultural valuables, and in the organisation of channels for illegal migration.
A negative effect on the reliable defense and protection of Russia’s state borders is exerted by the insufficient level of development of border infrastructure and of technological equipment for border-related bodies.
- The resolution of border security problems is achieved by creating high-technology and multifunctional border complexes, particularly on the borders with the Republic of Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan, and likewise by increasing the effectiveness of state border defense, particularly in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, the Far East and on the Caspian.
- The provision of national security in emergency situations is achieved by improving and developing a single public warning and relief system for emergency situations of both a natural and man-made character (comprising territorial and functional segments), and integrating it with analogous systems abroad.
The resolution of national security challenges in emergency situations is achieved by increasing the effective implementation of the powers of local self-government bodies pertaining to the security of the population’s vital activities, renewing technological equipment and the technologies of production at potentially dangerous sites and essential facilities, introducing modern technological means of informing and notifying the population in public places, and likewise developing systems of preventative measures to lower the risk of terrorist acts and allay the consequences of emergency situations of a man-made or natural character.
- The Russian Federation is strengthening national defense, and providing state and public security with the goal of creating internal and external conditions favourable to the achievement of socio-economic development priorities.
- Improvement of the quality of life of Russian citizens
- The strategic goals in terms of ensuring national security in the area of improving the quality of life of Russian citizens are the reduction of social and material inequalities within the population, the stabilisation of population size in the medium term, and in the long term — the fundamental improvement of the demographic situation.
- The improvement of the quality of life of Russian citizens is guaranteed by ensuring individual security, and likewise access to comfortable housing, safe and high quality goods and services, and a dignified wage for active labour.
- Sources of threats to national security could include factors such as a crisis within global and regional financial-banking systems, an intensification of competition over insufficient raw materials, energy, water and food resources, or a lag in the development of cutting-edge technologies, which increase strategic risks associated with dependence on changes in external factors.
- National security in the domain of improving the quality of life of Russian citizens will be supported by the reduction of organised crime, corruption, and drug addiction; by preventing organised criminal groups from legalising their economic activities; by achieving socio-political stability and a positive dynamic of development of the Russian Federation, as well as the ensuring the stability of the financial-banking system, broader exploitation of mineral and raw material resources, accessibility of modern education and healthcare, high social mobility and support for socially significant labour activity, superior qualifications and quality of labour resources, and finally the rational organisation of migratory flows.
- One of the main elements of ensuring national security in the medium term includes food security and the guaranteed provision of high-quality, accessible medications.
- Food security is assured by developing biotechnologies and import-substitution of basic food products, as well as by preventing soil depletion, the reduction of agricultural and arable land, the capture of domestic grain markets by foreign companies, and the uncontrolled dissemination of food products made from genetically modified plants, with the use of genetically modified microorganisms and microorganisms having genetically modified analogues.
- In the interests of developing the pharmaceutical sector, conditions are being created to overcome its dependence on foreign suppliers for raw materials.
- In order to counteract threats to national security with regards to the quality of life of Russian citizens, the forces of national security together with civil society institutions:
improve the national system of human rights protection by developing an appropriate legal system and legislation;
assist the growth of well-being, the reduction of poverty and of income disparities with the goal of ensuring continuous access of all citizens to a quantity of food products essential to a healthy lifestyle;
create the conditions necessary for living a healthy lifestyle, stimulate birth rates and lower death rates;
improve and develop transport infrastructure, increase protection of the population from emergency situations of both natural and man-made origins;
ensure the preservation of a cultural and spiritual legacy, the accessibility of information technologies, and likewise of information on various issues of the socio-political, economic and spiritual life of society;
improve public-private partnership with the goal of strengthening the material-technical base of healthcare, cultural and educational institutions, of developing residential construction projects, and enhancing the quality of housing and community services.
- Economic growth
- Strategic national security objectives include Russia’s entry, in the medium term, into the ranks of the top five countries by size of GDP, and likewise the achievement of the necessary degree of national security in the economic and technological spheres.
- The provision of national security by means of economic growth is achieved by developing a national system of innovation, increasing the productivity of labour, acquiring new resources, modernising priority sectors of the national economy, and improving the banking system, the financial services sector and intergovernmental fiscal relations in the Russian Federation.
- The main long-term strategic risks and threats to national security in the economic sphere are the maintenance of a raw materials export model of economic development, the lessening of competitiveness and the high dependence on external economic conditions, the loss of control over national resources, the worsening of the condition of the industrial and energy resource base, the unequal development of the regions and progressive labour shortages, the low levels of stability and protection of the national financial system, the persistence of conditions conducive to the corruption and criminalisation of economic and financial relationships, and also to illegal migration.
- The insufficient effectiveness of state regulation of the national economy, falling economic growth rates, the appearance of trade and balance of payment deficits, and the contraction of budget revenues could lead to delays in the transition to innovation-based growth, and to the consequent accumulation of social problems in the country.
- A direct negative effect on national security in the economic sphere may be exerted by a deficit of fuel-energy, water, and biological resources, by the adoption of discriminatory measures and the intensification of unfair competition with regards to Russia, and likewise due to crisis phenomena in the global financial-banking system.
- For the provision of national security by means of economic growth, the Russian Federation is concentrating its main efforts on the development of science, technology and education, and on the improvement of national investment and financial institutions, in the interests of achieving an essential level of security in the military, military-industrial and international spheres.
- Threats to national security related to disproportional levels of development among subjects of the Russian Federation are prevented by means of a rational regional policy directed at the improved coordination of state bodies, local administrations, the business community and civil society.
- One of the main long-term directions of national security in the economic sphere is energy security. Essential conditions of national and global energy security include multilateral cooperation in the interests of creating markets for energy resources that correspond to WTO principles, the development and international exchange of promising energy-saving technologies, and likewise the use of ecologically clean, alternative sources of energy.
The main aspects of energy security are the stable supply of sufficient standard quality sources of energy; the effective use of energy resources by increasing the competitiveness of domestic producers; the prevention of possible fuel-energy resource deficits; the creation of strategic stocks of fuel, reserve capacities and standard equipment; and ensuring the stable functioning of the system of energy and fuel provision.
- In order to counteract threats to economic security, the forces of national security in cooperation with civil society institutions aim to support state socio-economic policy, which is directed at:
perfecting structures of production and export, antimonopoly regulation and support for competition policy;
developing a national system of innovation with the goal of implementing highly effective projects and priority programmes developing the high-technology economic sectors;
strengthening financial markets and increasing the liquidity of the banking system;
reducing the informal sector and legalising labour relations, increasing investment in the development of human capital;
balancing the interests of the indigenous population with those of migrant labourers, taking into account their ethnic, linguistic, cultural and denominational differences, including by improving migration records, and likewise by ensuring the fair territorial distribution of migrant labour based on the labour resource requirements of the regions;
establishing a system of scientific and technical forecasting and implementing scientific and technical priorities, intensifying the integration of science, education and industry;
creating conditions for the development of a competitive domestic pharmaceutical industry;
developing the industries of information and telecommunication technologies, computer technology resources, electronics, telecommunications equipment and programming.
- In the interests of ensuring national security in the medium term, competitive economic sectors are being developed and markets for Russian products are being expanded, the effectiveness of the fuel-energy complex is being enhanced, instruments of public-private partnership are being used to resolve strategic challenges to economic development and to the completion of a basic transport, energy, information and military infrastructure, especially in the Arctic zone, Eastern Siberia, and the Far East of the Russian Federation.
- The strengthening of economic security will be supported by the improvement of state regulation of economic growth, by developing conceptual and programmatic documents of interregional and territorial planning, and creating a comprehensive system of risk control, including:
introduction of an active state anti-inflation, currency, exchange rate, monetary-credit and taxation-budgetary policy, aimed at import-substitution and supporting the real economy;
stimulation and support for the development of a market for innovation, high-tech production and high value-added production, and the development of promising general-, dual- and special-purpose technologies.
- At the regional level, the stable condition of national security is ensured by the balanced, comprehensive and systemic development of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
One of the main medium-term directions of national security at the regional level is the creation of mechanisms intended to reduce the level of interregional disparity in the socio-economic development of the subjects of the Russian Federation, by means of balanced territorial development.
In the long term, threats to national security related to the disproportionate levels of development of the Russian regions are prevented by launching a full-scale national innovation system, by creating territorial-industrial areas in the southern regions and Povolzhye, in the Ural region and in Siberia, in the Far East and in other regions of the Russian Federation.
- In order to achieve regional development, the forces of national security in cooperation with civil society institutions support the effective implementation of the powers of state bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local self-governing bodies, by coordinating and implementing measures taken at the federal, regional and municipal levels, directed at the development of the regional economic and social sphere, including the equalisation of their budgetary provisions.
- Science, technology and education
- Strategic national security goals in the sphere of science, technology and education are as follows:
developing state scientific and scientific-technical organisations, capable of providing competitive advantages for the national economy and the needs of national defense, by means of effective coordination of scientific research and the development of a national system of innovation;
increasing social mobility, the population’s general and professional level of education, and the professional qualities of highly qualified cadres, by means of the accessibility of competitive education.
- A direct negative effect on national security in terms of science, technology and education is caused by the country falling behind in the transition towards the next technological order, by dependence on imported deliveries of scientific equipment, instruments, electronic components, and strategic materials, by the unsanctioned transfer abroad of competitive domestic technologies, by unfounded unilateral sanctions against Russia’s scientific and educational institutions, by the insufficient development of the normative legal base and weak motivation to formulate policies around innovation and industry, by the low level of social protection for engineering-technical, professorial and pedagogical , the low quality of general secondary education, and of professional primary, secondary, and higher education.
- One of the main policy directions of the Russian Federation in the medium term is determined by technological security. To this end, a state policy pertaining to industry and innovation is being perfected; fundamental and applied research, together with education, are defined as unquestionable priorities of the innovational development of the national economy; a system of federal and public contracts for the training of highly qualified specialists and workers is being improved; public-private partnerships are being developed in science and technology; conditions are being created for the integration of science, education, and industry; systemic research is being conducted in the interests of resolving strategic challenges of national defense, state and public security, and likewise of the country’s stable development.
- In order to counteract threats in the spheres of science, technology and education, the forces of national security in cooperation with civil society institutions implement the civil education of new generations in the traditions of the prestige of the scientist and the pedagogue, ensure the effectiveness of state regulation in relation to integrating science, education and high-technological industry.
- The resolution of national security issues in the area of science, technology and education in the medium and long term are achieved by the following means:
formulating systems of targeted fundamental and applied research and their support by the state in the interests of an organisational-scientific approach to achieving strategic national priorities;
creating a network of federal universities and national research universities that would ensure, within a framework of cooperative relationships, the training of specialists for work in science and education, the development of competitive technologies and exemplary high-tech production, the organisation of high-tech production;
implementing programmes establishing institutions of learning oriented at training cadres to serve the needs of regional development, as well as the organs and forces of national security;
ensuring the participation of Russian scientific and scientific-educational organisations in global technological and research projects, taking into account the state of the intellectual property market.
- Strategic national security goals in the area of healthcare and the health of the nation are as follows:
increasing life expectancy, reducing disability and mortality;
improving disease prevention and the provision of timely, qualified primary healthcare and high-technology medical assistance;
improving standards of medical assistance, and likewise of the quality, effectiveness and safety of medicines.
- One of the main threats to national security in terms of healthcare and national health is the appearance of large-scale epidemics and pandemics, the mass spread of HIV infection, tuberculosis, drug addiction and alcoholism, and the increased accessibility of psychoactive and psychotropic substances.
- A direct negative effect on national security in the domain of healthcare and the health of the nation is exerted by the low effectiveness of the medical insurance system and the low quality of healthcare specialist training and retraining; the insufficient level of social guarantees and wages for medical workers and insufficient financing for the system of high-technology medical assistance; the incomplete formation of a normative legal basis for healthcare oriented at increasing accessibility and implementing guarantees of medical assistance for the general population.
- The state policy of the Russian Federation relating to healthcare and the health of the nation is geared at preventive medicine and also at preventing the spread of socially dangerous illnesses.
- The main directions of national security policy in the sphere of healthcare and national health of the Russian Federation are determined in the medium term by the intensification of the preventative orientation of healthcare, focusing on preserving human health, and preserving the institution of the family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood, as the foundations of social vitality.
- The strengthening of national security in the area of healthcare and national health will be supported by enhancing the quality and accessibility of medical services, by using promising information and telecommunications technologies, by means of state support for promising pharmaceutical, biotechnological and nanotechnological research, and likewise by modernising economic mechanisms involved in the functioning of healthcare and developing the material-technical base of state and municipal healthcare systems, taking regional particularities into consideration.
- In order to counteract threats to healthcare and the health of the nation, the forces of national security in cooperation with civil society institutions ensure the effectiveness of state regulation in the area of standardization, licensing, and certification of medical services, in the accreditation of medical and pharmaceutical establishments, in the provision of state guarantees for receiving medical assistance and modernising the system of obligatory medical insurance, and in the definition of uniform criteria evaluating the work of centers for treatment and prevention at the level of municipal formations and subjects of the Russian Federation.
- The resolution of problems of national security in the sphere of healthcare and the health of the nation in the medium and long term is achieved by the following means:
formulating national programmes (projects) for the treatment of socially significant diseases (oncological, cardiac-arterial, diabetic and phtisiological illnesses, drug addiction, alcoholism), alongside the development of uniform approaches to the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients;
developing an administrative system overseeing the quality and accessibility of medical assistance, and the training of healthcare specialists;
providing for the qualitative transformation of the structure of infections and for the liquidation of the preconditions of epidemics, including epidemics caused by particularly dangerous infectious pathogens, by developing and implementing promising technologies and national programmes of state support for disease prevention.
- Strategic objectives ensuring national security in the cultural sphere are as follows:
broadening access of large sections of the population to the best examples of national and foreign culture and art by creating modern territorially distributed information banks;
creating conditions for the stimulation of creative self-realisation within the population, by improving systems of cultural enlightenment, the organisation of leisure activities and mass extracurricular artistic education;
assisting the development of the cultural potential of Russia’s regions and supporting regional cultural initiatives.
- The main threats to national security in the cultural sphere are the dominance of production of mass culture oriented towards the spiritual needs of marginalised groups, and likewise unlawful infringements against cultural objects.
- Negative influences on the state of national security in the cultural sphere are intensified by attempts to revise perspectives on Russia’s history, its role and place in world history; and by the propagandizing of a lifestyle based on permissiveness and violence, or racial, national and religious intolerance.
- In order to counteract threats in the cultural sphere, the forces of national security together with civil society institutions ensure the effectiveness of state regulation intended to support and develop national cultures, tolerance and self-respect, and likewise the development of international [in the sense of interethnic] and interregional cultural ties.
- The strengthening of national security in the cultural sphere will be served by preserving and developing indigenous cultures within Russia’s multinational population, and the citizenry’s spiritual values; by improving the material-technical basis of cultural and leisure establishments; by perfecting the system of training of cadres and providing for their social welfare; by supporting the production and distribution of domestic cinematography; developing cultural tourism; establishing government contracts for the creation of cinematographic and printed works, television and radio programmes and internet resources; and likewise by using Russia’s cultural potential in the service of multilateral international cooperation.
- In the medium and long term, the resolution of national security challenges in the cultural sphere are achieved by acknowledging the primary role of culture in the rebirth and preservation of cultural-moral values, by reinforcing the spiritual unity of the multinational population of the Russian Federation and the international image of Russia as a country with a very rich traditional and dynamically developing contemporary culture, by creating a system of spiritual and patriotic education for Russian citizens, and finally by developing
- The ecology of living systems and environmental management
- Strategic objectives relating to ecological security and environmental management are:
preserving of the environment and ensuring its protection;
redressing the environmental consequences of economic activity in the context of a growing economy and global climate changes.
- The state of national security in the ecological sphere is negatively affected by the depletion of world reserves of mineral, water and biological resources, and likewise by the presence in the Russian Federation of ecologically disadvantaged regions.
- The state of national security in the ecological sphere is worsened by the maintenance of a significant number of dangerous production processes, whose activity leads to the destruction of the ecological balance, including the disruption of sanitary-epidemiological and/or sanitary-hygienic standards of drinking water used by the general population; disposal of radioactive waste from the non-nuclear [sic] fuel cycle is not subject to normative legal regulation and oversight. The strategic risk of exhaustion of the country’s most important mineral and raw material resources is growing, as the rate of extraction of many mineral resources declines.
- In order to counteract threats in the sphere of ecological security and environmental management, the forces of national security together with civil society institutions create the conditions for the introduction of ecologically safe production; the search for promising energy sources; the creation and implementation of a state programme for the establishment of strategic reserves of mineral and raw material resources sufficient to supply Russia’s mobilisation requirements; and the guaranteed provision of water and biological resources to meet the needs of the population and the economy.
- Strategic stability and equitable strategic partnership
- The achievement of the Russian Federation’s priorities for stable development is supported by an active foreign policy, whose efforts are focused on seeking agreement and common interests with other states, on the basis of a system of bilateral and multilateral mutually beneficial partnership relations.
- The creation of favorable conditions for Russia’s stable development in the long term is achieved by ensuring strategic stability, including by means of consistent movement towards a world free from nuclear weapons, and by creating conditions of equal security for all.
- Russia bases its relations with the international community on the principle of maintaining stability and predictability in the area of strategic offensive arms, and attributes particular significance to the achievement of new full-scale bilateral agreements on the continued reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.
- Russia will assist with engaging other states, first of all those possessing nuclear weapons, but also those interested in joint action to ensure mutual security, in a process of establishing strategic stability.
- Russia believes that the maintenance of strategic stability and equitable strategic partnership can be supported by the presence of contingents of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in conflict zones, on the basis of norms of international law, with the goal of resolving political, economic and other challenges by non-military means.
- On the world stage, Russia will act from a position founded on an unchanging course towards joint participation with other states in the reinforcement of international mechanisms for nonproliferation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, means of their delivery and related goods and technologies; on the unacceptability of use of military force in contravention of the United Nations Charter; and likewise from a position of adherence to arms control and rational sufficiency in military construction.
- In order to preserve strategic stability and equitable strategic partnership, the Russian Federation:
will fulfill existing treaties and agreements pertaining to the limitation and reduction of arms, will participate in the development and conclusion of new agreements corresponding to Russia’s national interests;
is prepared to engage in further discussion of questions surrounding the reduction of nuclear potentials on the basis of bilateral agreements and in multilateral fora, and likewise will assist in creating appropriate conditions, allowing for the reduction of nuclear armaments without detracting from international security or strategic stability;
intends to continue assisting the reinforcement of regional stability by means of participation in processes of reduction and limitation of ordinary armed forces, and likewise the development and application of confidence building measures in the military domain;
considers international peacekeeping to be a viable instrument for the resolution of armed conflicts, stands for strengthening this institution in strict accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter, and will continue its participation therein;
will participate in efforts led by the UN and other international organisations to relieve natural and man-made catastrophes and crisis situations, and likewise in the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected countries.
- In the interests of strategic stability and equitable multilateral interaction on the international stage, during the period of realisation of this Strategy Russia will undertake all necessary efforts, with minimum expenditure, to maintain parity with the United States of America in the area of strategic offensive arms, given a situation in which the USA is unfolding a global missile defense system and implementing a global “lightning strike” concept using nuclear- and non-nuclear-equipped strategic bombers.
- Organisational, legal-normative and informational foundations of the realisation of the given Strategy.
- The state policy of the Russian Federation in the area of national security is the result of the concerted effort of all elements of the system providing national security, with a coordinating role being played by the Security Council of the Russian Federation with respect to the realisation of a range of measures of an organisational, legal-normative and informational nature.
- The realisation of the given Strategy is ensured by the consolidation of the energies and resources of state bodies and civil society insitutions, directed towards the defense of Russia’s national interests by means of political, organisational, socio-economic, legal, special and other measures, developed within the framework of strategic planning in the Russian Federation.
- Periodic amendments to the given Strategy are realised under the aegis of the Security Council of the Russian Federation — in accordance with the results of the constant monitoring of the realisation of the given Strategy, and in view of developments that would have a substantial influence on the state of national security.
- Organisational support for the realisation of the given Strategy consists of the improvement of the public administration of the Russian Federation, and likewise the development of a system of national security on the basis of improvements to strategic planning mechanisms geared at the stable development of the Russian Federation and at the provision of national security under the direction of the President of the Russian Federation.
- The system of documents of strategic planning (including the Concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation; the Programme of short-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation; the strategies (programmes) of development of separate economic sectors; the strategies (concepts) of development of the federal regions; the strategies and comprehensive programmes of socio-economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation; interstate programmes in which Russia participates; federal (departmental) special programmes; state defense contracting; conceptions, doctrines and foundations (fundamental directions) of state policy with regards to ensuring national security and with regards to the domestic and foreign policy of the state) is formulated by the Government of the Russian Federation and relevant federal organs of executive power, with the participation of state bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation, on the basis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and other normative legal acts of the Russian Federation.
- By resolution of the President of the Russian Federation, documents regarding issues of domestic and foreign policy can be brought up for review before the Security Council of the Russian Federation.
- The development of strategic planning documents is executed in agreement with the order of business [parliamentary procedure] of the Government of the Russian Federation, and in accordance with the system of document preparation of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation.
- State policy relating to the fight against terrorism and drug-related crimes is formulated by the State Antinarcotics Committee and the National Antiterrorism Committee — interdepartmental bodies which ensure coordination between federal organs of executive power and government bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the relevant domains.
- Comprehensive questions pertaining to national security may be examined at joint sessions of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the State Council of the Russian Federation, and the Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation, with the participation of other advisory and consultative bodies, created to guarantee the constitutional powers of the President of the Russian Federation.
- Normative legal measures supporting the realisation of the given Strategy are determined on the basis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation, resolutions and acts of the Parliament of the Russian Federation, and likewise normative legal acts of the federal organs of executive power.
- The informational and informational-analytical support for the realisation of the given Strategy is performed under the coordinating aegis of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, by attracting the information resources of relevant state bodies and state scientific institutions, with the use of a system of “distributed Situation Centers” working in coordination with one another.
- For the development of a system of Situation Centers in the medium term, it will be necessary to overcome technological lag in the most important areas of IT, telecommunications, and interconnectivity, which determine the state of national security; to develop and introduce technologies of information security into systems of government and military administration, systems of management of ecologically dangerous products and critically important sites; and likewise to create conditions for the harmonisation of the national information infrastructure with global information networks and systems.
- Threats to information security in the course of realising the given Strategy are prevented by improving the security of the information and telecommunications systems of critically important infrastructure and high-risk facilities in the Russian Federation; by increasing the level of protection of corporate and individual information systems; and by creating a unified system of information-telecommunication support for the system of national security.
- The development and realisation of a range of efficient and prolonged measures for the prevention of threats to national security in the federal regions is performed by the federal organs of executive power in cooperation with the state bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation, under the coordinating aegis of the Government of the Russian Federation.
- Monitoring of the realisation of the given Strategy is conducted within the framework of the annual report of the Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation to the President of the Russian Federation, regarding the state of national security and measures for its reinforcement.
- The main indicators of the state of national security
- The main indicators of the state of national security are designated in order to evaluate the level of national security, and include:
the level of unemployment (as a proportion of the economically active population);
the decile coefficient (the correlation between the incomes of the top and bottom 10% of the population);
the rate of growth of consumer prices;
the level of the internal and external state debt as a percentage of GDP;
the level of fiscal support for health, culture, education and science as a percentage of GDP;
the level of annual renewal of armaments, military and specialist equipment;
the level of supply of military and engineering-technical cadres.
The list of basic indicators of national security can be made more precise in accordance with the results of monitoring of the state of national security.
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The realisation of the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation to 2020 is expected to become a motivating factor in the development of the national economy; the improvement of the population’s quality of life; the assurance of political stability within society; the reinforcement of national defense, state security and law and order; and the enhancement of the competitiveness and international status of the Russian Federation.